German officials and lawmakers say the attacks are the latest in a series aimed at disrupting German elections and damaging Chancellor Angela Merkel, who has pushed to maintain sanctions on Russia over its actions in eastern Ukraine.
CS Digest Section: Information Warfare
Powerful machine-learning techniques are making it increasingly easy to manipulate or generate realistic video and audio, and to impersonate anyone you want with amazing accuracy.
The study to be published Friday and another published on Wednesday add evidence to complaints by officials in France, Germany and the United States that Russia is trying to replicate its cyber-powered election meddling in American politics.
The countries - Britain, Finland, France, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and the United States - signed the memorandum to set up the so-called "hybrid threat" center in Helsinki with the support of the Finnish government.
The fact-check tagging system, which is rolling out globally on Google Search and News, expands on a program introduced by Google's Jigsaw group to Google News in the UK and US in October.
Former Estonian President Toomas Hendrik IIves was one of four experts who spoke Thursday on Capitol Hill about Russian hacking and propaganda efforts designed to undermine The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Union.